C LANGUAGE – INTRODUCTION
The C Language was developed by Dennis Ritchie at AT & T’s Bell Laboratories in 1972. C is a middle level, procedure oriented programming language. C is more popular because, even today’s modern programming languages like java, C++ and databases are all developed by using C language. C language is the base for all other programming languages.
- C is simple, versatile, fast and efficient.
- C is highly portable, a C program can be compiled in any platform that has a C compiler.
- C is extensively used in developing system softwares like compilers, databases, drivers and operating systems.
C is a middle level language:
C is called middle level language as it stands between machine level language and high level language. C is capable of doing both system level programming to develop Operating System as well as High level programming to develop applications that run on the Operating systems.
C is a portable programming language:
C language is portable because a program written in C can be compiled for any platform with a C compiler. The same code can be used for different platforms without and modifications to a single line of code.
C Language Standards:
The first edition of “The C Programming Language” was published by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie in 1978. This was an informal specification of C language and was referred by the name K&R C.
The American National Standards Institute(ANSI) formed a committee to establish a standard specification of C language in 1983. A standard version of C was formed in 1989 and was called “ANSI C” and also as “C89”. Later, in 1990, the ISO(International Organisation for Standardisation) adopted the ANSI C standard with some changes in formatting and was referred to as “C90”. Hence C89 and C90 denotes the same programming language.
In 1999, the C standard was revised to introduce new features like inline functions, variable length arrays, support for one line functions beginning with //, improved support for IEEE floating points etc. This standard is known as “C99”
C11 standard version was introduced in 2011 with various changes to C99 like Alignment specification, multi-threading support, etc.